EARLY DIFFUSION AND FOLK USES OF HEMP
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Jun. 10th, 2006 | 12:58 pm
music: Maggi Payne - Moiri
Here is the original article that re-kindled
all the old arguments about the presence of
cannabis in the Torah / Old Testament when
it was printed in 1975:
EARLY DIFFUSION AND FOLK USES OF HEMP
SULA BENET < -aka- SARA BENETOWA >
[ from *Cannabis and Culture*, Vera Rubin &
Lambros Comitas, (eds.), 1975, pgs. 39-49 ]
Despite the growing volume of literature on the subject of
hemp, the historical routes of its diffusion remain obscure
and there is scant reference to its ubiquitous role in folk
ritual, magic and medicine among European peasantry.
The term cannabis, itself, has been considered to be of
Indo-European origin. The paper re-examines the origin of
the term cannabis to demonstrate its derivation from Semitic
Both the word and its forms of use were borrowed by the
nomadic Scythians from peoples of the Near East and diffused
among the people with whom they came in contact. Ritual and
other folk uses are described.
Hemp, one of the most versatile and important plants
discovered by man and used for millennia, has been long
neglected in scientific literature. Not until society's
recent concern with drug addiction has the existing body of
knowledge about hemp become so readily available. In the
past, such information could be found in pharmacopoeia, in
occasional historical references, or in ritual folkloristic
Although the body of literature concerning hemp has grown
rapidly in the last decade, the exact origin of the plant
has yet to be established; the historical routes of its
diffusion remain obscure, and there is barely any reference
to the role it played in the life of the European peasantry.
The latter should be of special interest in view of the
ubiquitous use of hemp in folk ritual, magic, and medicinal
A major reason for the obscurity as well as confusion that
becloud the issue is that previously suggested theories of
diffusion have been repeated and elaborated without critical
examination of their historical sources.
For example, the German scientists, Schrader, Hehn, and
Bushan, as well as learned biblical commentaries and modern
botanists, have claimed that ancient Palestine and Egypt did
not know hemp and its uses (Dewey 1913; Moldenke 1952).
In this paper, I propose to reconsider the origin of the
term cannabis to demonstrate that it is derived from Semitic
languages and that both its name and forms of its use were
borrowed by the Scythians from the peoples of the Near East.
We will thus discover that the use of cannabis predates by
at least 1000 years its first mention by Herodotus.
Next, we will examine the diffusion of the plant to Europe
and its continued use in peasant rituals, magic, and medical
Western scholars have universally considered the term
cannabis to be of Indo-European, specifically Scythian, origin.
This widely-held opinion not only credited the Scythians
with the name for hemp (which Linnaeus categorized as
Cannabis sativa) but also with the initial introduction of
the plant into Europe and Asia.
There was barely any history of cannabis before the Greek
historian Herodotus, in the fifth century B.C., observed
that the Scythians used the plant to purge themselves after
funerals by throwing hemp seeds on heated stones to create a
thick vapour, inhaling the smoke and becoming intoxicated.
"The Scythians howl with joy for the vapour bath"
(Herodotus, IV: 142).
To the Western world, Herodotus' account is the earliest
source of knowledge of the ritual use of cannabis.
Tracing the history of hemp in terms of cultural contacts,
the Old Testament must not be overlooked since it provides
one of the oldest and most important written source materials.
In the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament there are
references to hemp, both as incense, which was an integral
part of religious celebration, and as an intoxicant (Benet
1936) Cannabis as an incense was also used in the temples of
Assyria and Babylon "because its aroma was pleasing to the
Gods." (Meissner 1925 (II): 84).
Both in the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament and in
the Aramaic translation, the word 'kaneh' or ' keneh' is
used either alone or linked to the adjective bosm in Hebrew
and busma in Aramaic, meaning aromatic.
It is 'cana' in Sanskrit, 'qunnabu' in Assyrian, 'kenab' in
Persian, 'kannab' in Arabic and 'kanbun' in Chaldean.
In Exodus 30: 23, God directed Moses to make a holy oil
composed of "myrrh, sweet cinnamon, kaneh bosm and kassia."
In many ancient languages, including Hebrew, the root 'kan'
has a double meaning --- both hemp and reed.
In many translations of the Bible's original Hebrew, we find
'kaneh bosm' variously and erroneously translated as
"calamus" and "aromatic reed," a vague term.
Calamus, (Calamus aromaticus) is a fragrant marsh plant.
The error occurred in the oldest Greek translation of the
Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, in the third century B.C., where
the terms 'kaneh, kaneh bosm' were incorrectly translated as
And in the many translations that followed, including Martin
Luther's, the same error was repeated.
In Exodus 30: 23 'kaneh bosm' is translated as "sweet calamus."
In Isaiah 43: 24 'kaneh' is translated as "sweet cane."
although the word "sweet" appears nowhere in the original.
In Jeremiah 6: 20 'kaneh' is translated as "sweet cane."
In Ezekiel 27: 19 'kaneh' is translated as "calamus."
In Song of Songs 4: 14 'kaneh' is translated "calamus."
Another piece of evidence regarding the use of the word
'kaneh' in the sense of hemp rather than reed among the
Hebrews is the religious requirement that the dead be buried
in 'kaneh' shirts.
Centuries later, linen was substituted for hemp (Klein 1908).
In the course of time, the two words 'kaneh' and ‘bos’ were
fused into one, 'kanabos' or 'kannabus,'known to us from
Mishna, the body of traditional Hebrew law. The word bears
an unmistakable similarity to the Scythian "cannabis."
Is it too far-fetched to assume that the Semitic word
'kanbos' and the Scythian word 'cannabis' mean the same thing?
Since the history of cannabis has been tied to the history
of the Scythians, it is of interest to establish their
appearance in the Near East. Again, the Old Testament
provides information testifying to their greater antiquity
than has been previously assumed.
The Scythians participated in both trade and wars alongside
the ancient Semites for at least one millennium before
Herodotus encountered them in the fifth century B.C.
The reason for confusion and the relative obscurity of the
role played by the Scythians in world history is explained
by the fact that they were known to the Greeks as Scythians
but to the Semites as Ashkenaz.
Identification of the Scythian-Ashkenaz as a single people
is convincingly made by Ellis H. Minns (1965) in his
definitive work on Scythians and Greeks.
The earliest reference to the Ashkenaz people appears in the
Bible in Genesis 10: 3, where Ashkenaz, their progenitor, is
named as the son of Gomer, the great-grandson of Noah.
The Ashkenaz of the Bible were both war-like and extremely
mobile. In Jeremiah 51: 27, we read that the kingdoms of
Ararat (known later as Armenia), Minni (Medea), and Ashkenaz
attacked Babylonia. In 612 B.C. Babylonians with the aid of
the Medeans (Medes) and Scythians, coming from the Caucasus,
dealt a deadly blow to Assyria (Durant 1954). Referring the
threat of war, Herodotus reports that Scythians attempted to
invade Egypt by way of Palestine and they withdrew only
after the Pharaoh paid them to retreat.
There is evidence of the presence of the Scythians in Palestine.
The city known as Beizan in modern times was originally
called Bethshan and later renamed Scythopolis by the Greeks
during the Hellenistic period, since many Scythians settled
there during the great invasion of Palestine in the
The importance of the geographical position of Palestine
cannot be overlooked when considering the trade routes
through which caravans moved, laden with goods and precious
Palestine was situated along the two most vital trade routes
of the ancient world. One was between Egypt and Asia and the
other ran west from Arabia to the coastal plain, from there
branching off to Egypt to Syria.
In the original Hebrew of the Bible (Ezekiel 27: 19), in a
description of Tyre, the royal city of the Phoenicians,
famous in antiquity for its far-flung trade, it is noted
that "Vedon and Yavan traded with yarn for thy wares;
massive iron, cassia and kaneh were among thy merchandise."
(The markets of Tyre were frequented by the Jews.
Biblical quotation from "The Holy Scriptures," The Jewish
Publication Society of America.)
King Solomon, a contemporary and friend of King Hiram of
Tyre (960 B.C.), ordered hemp cords among other materials
for building his temples and throne (Salzberger 1912).
Rostovtzeff (1932) describes the caravan trade between
Babylonia, Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor. Among the goods
there was incense for the "delection of gods and men."
In addition to the caravan trade, the mobile, warlike
Ashkenaz carried their raid to the Caucasus in the north and
westward to Europe, taking with them their knowledge of the
use of hemp as well as their dependence on its intoxicating
qualities. So mobile were the Scythians that there is a good
probability that as they spilled across much of Europe and
Asia; they were the ones to introduce the natives to the
ritual use of the plant and the narcotic pleasures to be
derived from it. The Scythians apparently did not use hemp
for manufactures such as weaving and rope-making. Yet,
despite the plentiful quantity of wild hemp, the Scythians
cultivated the plant in order to increase the amount
available for their use. Apparently their need for it was
Since hemp was originally used in rituals, it may be assumed
that the Scythians spread their custom among the people with
whom they came into contact. The Siberian tribes of Pazaryk
in the Altai region (discovered by the Soviet archaeologist,
S. Rudenko) left burial mounds in which bronze vessels
containing burnt hemp seeds to produce incense vapours were
Rudenko believes that these objects were used for funeral
purification ceremonies similar to those practised by the
Scythians (Emboden 1972: 223).
Another custom connected with the dead in parts of Eastern
Europe is the throwing of a handful of seeds into the fire
as an offering to the dead during the harvesting of hemp ---
similar to the custom of the Scythians and of the Pazaryk
tribes, two-and-a-half thousand years ago.
There is no doubt that some of the practices, such as
funeral customs, were introduced by the Scythians during
their victorious advance into southeast Russia, including
the Caucasus, where they remained for centuries.
Hemp never lost its connection with the cult of the dead.
Even today in Poland and Lithuania, and in former times also
in Russia, on Christmas Eve when it is believed that the
dead visit their families, a soup made of hemp seeds, called
'semieniatka,' is served for the dead souls to savor. In
Latvia and the Ukraine, a dish made of hemp was prepared for
Three Kings Day.
Since the plant was associated with religious ritual and the
power of healing, magical practices were connected with its
cultivation. In Europe, peasants generally believed that
planting hemp should take place on the days of saints who
were known to be tall in order to encourage the plant's
growth. In Germany, long steps are taken while sowing the
seed which is thrown high into the air. In Baden the
planting is done during the "high" hours, between 11:00 a.m.
and noon. Cakes baked to stimulate hemp growth are known as
Following the planting, magical means are applied to make
the hemp grow tall and straight. The custom of dancing or
jumping to promote the growth of the plant is known
throughout Europe. In Poland, married women dance "the hemp
dance" on Shrove Tuesday, leaping high into the air. The
hemp dance ('for hemp's sake') is also danced at weddings by
the young bride with the 'raiko,' the master of ceremonies
(Kolberg 1899). In the wedding rituals of the Southern
Slavs, hemp is a symbol of wealth and a talisman for happiness.
When the bride enters her new home after the wedding
ceremony, she strokes the four walls of her new home with a
bunch of hemp.
She is herself sprinkled with hemp seeds to bring good luck.
In Estonia, the young bride visits her neighbors in the
company of older women asking for gifts of hemp. She is thus
"showered" with hemp.
The odor of European hemp is stimulating enough to produce
euphoria and a desire for sociability and gaiety and
harvesting of hemp has always been accompanied by social
festivities, dancing, and sometimes even erotic playfulness.
Women play a leading role in the festivities. In Poland,
initiation ceremonies are held during the harvest. Young
brides are admitted into the circle of older married women
on payment of a token fee.
Since the Catholic Church never deemed it necessary to
interfere with these festivals, it must have regarded them
as harmless and perhaps even socially benevolent.
In Eastern Europe hemp is evidently not considered addictive
and no case of solitary use among the peasants has been
reported: it is always used in a context of group
participation. In many countries, hemp gathering is an
occasion for socializing. The Swiss call it 'stelg' (Hager
1919). Young men come to the gathering wearing carnival
masks and offer gifts to the girls.
Hemp gathering rituals also reveal the sacred character of
the plant. In certain areas of Poland, at midnight, a chalk
ring is drawn around the plant which is then sprinkled with
holy water. The person collecting the plant hopes that part
of the flower will fall into his boots and bring him good
The flower of a hemp plant gathered on St. John's Eve in the
Ukraine is thought to counteract witchcraft and protect farm
animals from the evil eye.
Although it is believed that witches can use the plant to
inflict harm, they are not likely to do so in fact, and hemp
is often used against persons suspected of witchcraft. In
Poland, it is used for divination, especially in connection
The eve of St. Andrews (November 30th) is considered a most
propitious time for divination about future husbands.
Certain magical spells, using hemp, are believed to advance
the date of marriage, perhaps even signal the very day it
will occur. Girls in the Ukraine carry hemp seeds in their
belts, they jump on a heap and call out:
I plant the hemp seed on you.
Will god let me know
With whom I will sleep?
The girls then remove their shirts and fill their mouths
with water to sprinkle on the seed to keep the birds from
eating them. Then they run around the house naked three times.
The sacred character of hemp in biblical times is evident
from Exodus 30: 22-33, where Moses was instructed by God to
anoint the meeting tent and all its furnishings with
specially prepared oil, containing hemp.
Anointing set sacred things apart from the secular. The
anointment of sacred objects was an ancient tradition in
Israel: holy oil was not to be used for secular purposes.
And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying,
"This shall be a holy anointing oil unto me, throughout your
generations." (King James Version, Exodus 30:31).
Above all, the anointing oil was used for the installation
rites of all Hebrew kings and priests.
Dr. R. Patai (1947) expresses the opinion that the use of
sacred oil is based on the belief in its nourishing,
conserving and healing powers. Dr. Patai discusses the
spread of this custom from the ancient Near East to most of
Africa where we find the ritual of anointing among other
parallels in the rites of installation of kings.
Almost all ancient peoples considered narcotic and medicinal
plants sacred and incorporated them into their religious or
magical beliefs and practices. In Africa, there were a
number of cults and sects of hemp worship. Pogge and
Wissman, during their explorations of 1881, visited the
Bashilenge, living on the northern borders of the Lundu,
between Sankrua and Balua. They found large plots of land
around the villages used for the cultivation of hemp.
Originally there were small clubs of hemp smokers, bound by
ties of friendship, but these eventually led to the
formation of a religious cult. The Bashilenge called
themselves: Bena:Riamba --- "the sons of hemp,: and their
land Lubuku, meaning friendship. They greeted each other
with the expression "moio," meaning both "hemp" and "life."
Each tribesman was required to participate in the cult of
Riamba and show his devotion by smoking as frequently as
possible. They attributed universal magical powers to hemp,
which was thought to combat all kinds of evil and they took
it when they went to war and when they traveled. There were
initiation rites for new members which usually took place
before a war or long journey. The hemp pipe assumed a
symbolic meaning for the Bashilenge somewhat analogous to
the significance which the peace pipe had for American
Indians. No holiday, no trade agreement, no peace treaty was
transacted without it (Wissman et al. 1888). In the middle
Sahara region, the Senusi sect also cultivated hemp on a
large scale for use in religious ceremonies (Ibid).
USE OF CANNABIS IN FOLK MEDICINE
Hemp, both because of its psychoactive properties and its
mystical significance, became a popular and widely-utilized
plant in the folk medicine of Europe and Asia. Since ancient
times its soothing, tranquilizing action has been known. The
Atharva Veda (1400 B.C.) mentions hemp as a medicinal and
magical plant. In the Zend-Avesta, hemp occupies the first
place in a list of 10,000 medicinal plants given to a doctor
According to Dioscorides (100 A.D.), the resin of fresh hemp
is an excellent treatment for earaches (Dioscorides 1902).
In an old Germanic catalogue of medicinal plants, hemp is
listed as a tranquilizer (Hoffer n.d.).
An edition of Diocletian also mentions the use of cannabis
as a medicament (Bretschneider 1881).
Medieval Arab doctors considered hemp a sacred medicine
which they called 'schahdanach,' 'schadabach' or 'kannab'
(Dragendorff 1898). Syrenius wrote in 1613 that ointment
made from hemp resin is the most effective remedy for burns
(Syrenius 1613) and that diseased joints could be
straightened with the roots of hemp boiled in water.
In Russia and Eastern Europe hemp was widely used in folk
medicine, and references can also be found to its use in
Western Europe. In Germany for example, sprigs of hemp were
placed over the stomach and ankles to prevent convulsions
and difficult childbirth, and in Switzerland hemp was also
used to treat convulsions.
In Poland, Russia and Lithuania, hemp was used to alleviate
toothache by inhaling the vapor from hemp seeds thrown on
hot stones (Biegeleisen 1929). Szyman of Lowic (16th
century) gives the following prescription: "For worms in the
teeth, boil hemp seeds in a new pot and add heated stones.
When this vapor is inhaled the worms will fall out." This
method is varied somewhat in Ukrainian folk medicine, the
fumes of cooked hemp porridge are believed to intoxicate the
worms and cause them to fall out. In Czechoslovakia and
Moravia, as in Poland, hemp was considered an effective
treatment for fevers.
In Poland, a mixture of hemp flowers, wax and olive oil was
used to dress wounds.
Oil from crushed hemp seeds is used as a treatment for
jaundice and rheumatism in Russia. In Serbia, hemp is
considered an aphrodisiac (Tschirch 1911). Hemp is also
thought to increase a man's strength. In the Ukraine there
is a legend of a dragon who lived in Kiev, oppressing the
people and demanding tribute. The dragon was killed and the
city liberated by a man wearing a hemp shirt.
Hemp is also used to treat animals. A cat that eats
mukhomor, a poison mushroom, is kept in a hemp field to eat
the plant until it "comes to its senses." And if chickens
are given hemp seeds on Christmas Eve, they will lay all
In central Asia, for cure or pleasure, hemp is eaten,
chewed, smoked, rubbed over the body, inhaled and made into
numerous elaborate concoctions.
Since the Soviet Union leads a determined fight against the
use of hashish, the subject is taboo, and the literature on
'nasha,' as hemp is called in central Asia, is virtually
nonexistent. Prof. Antzyferov (1934) wrote a short but most
interesting report on the use of hashish in central Asia.
Hemp has also been used for the cure of chronic alcoholics
in central Asia quite successfully, according to Dr. Antzyferov.
At the time of his report, Prof. Antzyferov was the head of
the State Hospital at Tashkent where he collected among his
patients and their relatives and friends numerous recipes
for 'nasha.' All of his informants believed that a great
deal of fat taken in food counteracts any harmful effect of
'nasha.' Some recipes are family secrets, others are well
known and used for centuries by the general public, native
and European settlers alike.
A mixture of lamb's fat with 'nasha' is recommended for
brides to use on their wedding night to reduce the pain of
defloration. The same mixture works well for headache when
rubbed into the skin; it may also be eaten spread on bread.
A candy called 'guc-kand,' popular among women for a "happy
mood," is made of hemp boiled in water, put through a sieve
with added sugar, saffron and several egg whites. The
ingredients are mashed and formed into small balls and then
dried in the sun.
The candy is given to boys before circumcision to reduce
pain and to children to keep them from crying. An ointment
made by mixing hashish with tobacco is used by some women
to shrink the vagina and prevent 'fluor albus'
( = leucorrhea - vaginal discharge ).
There is also "the happy porridge" made of the following
(1) almond butter mixed with 'nasha' ( Cannabis sativa ),
(2) dried rose leaves,
(3) root of Anacyclus pyrethrum ( Mount Atlas daisy ),
(4) carnation petals ( clove Gilly-flowers ),
(5) crocus ( Crocus sativa, saffron ),
(6) muscat nut ( nutmeg ),
(8) honey, and
This mixture is the most expensive of all hashish
preparations. It is eagerly sought by men who consider
it the strongest aphrodisiac.
The use of hemp in Europe and Asia is, of course, much older
than archaeological, historical or linguistic evidence would
indicate. Early man roaming around in search of edible
plants must have easily discovered the seeds and powerful
odor of the ripened tips of the weeds.
There is considerable difference of opinion concerning the
place of origin of the plant and its diffusion,
specifically, its appearance in Eastern Europe, but it is
generally understood that it should be searched where it
grows in the wild. (Editor's note: see article by Schultes
in this volume.)
The Russian botanist, N. Vavilov (1926) considers the region
where the greatest number of varieties of a particular plant
grow is the center of its evolutionary differentiation and
variation. The common mid-European hemp is known as
"Russian" or "German" hemp. This variety is spread over
most of Europe except for the southern part. Hemp belongs
to the group of plants which are self-planting and
Yanishevski observed that it draws to its fatty tissue a
bug, Pirrhocoris apterus L., which clings to the base of
the hemp seeds. The Pirrhocoris and birds contribute to the
dissemination of hemp seeds. The Pirrhocoris and birds
contribute to the dissemination of hemp seeds. De Candolle
(1883), seeing the wild plant in the Black Sea and Aralian
regions, concluded that this was the place of origin. We now
know that hemp is also indigenous to the Russian plains, the
Caucasus, Transcaucasia, the Crimea and the Urals, in fact,
the whole area from China to the Balkan Peninsula (Vavilov
We must, therefore, conclude that there was not one but
probably several origin sites and that whenever man
discovered hemp he used it for food and probably as a
stimulant. However, the ritual use of hemp as well as the
name, cannabis, in my opinion originated in the Ancient
.From there in the middle of the second millennium B.C.
through trade contacts, migrations and wars, the ritual
uses of the plant were carried to Egypt and Africa,
westward to Europe, and eastward to central Asia.
Whether India received the plant from China or central
Asia is not clear.
Hemp, as used originally in religious rituals, temple
activities, and tribal rites, involves groups of people
rather than the solitary individual. The pleasurable
psychoactive effects of hemp were then, as now, communal
I believe that the acceptance of tobacco in Europe was
undoubtedly enhanced by European familiarity with smoking
hemp. Tobacco was, in many ways a counterpart to hemp, all
the familiar features were there. Brought to Spain from the
New World as a medicinal plant, it came to be regarded as a
cure-all; the Amerindian ritual use of tobacco may also have
been known, and eventually also its psychoactive qualities.
Even the use of pipes for smoking tobacco in the Near East
was adopted from the water-pipes used for smoking hemp. Like
hemp, tobacco is chewed, sniffed and smoked.
Perhaps the spread of tobacco was so rapid and overwhelming
in the Old World, because a receptive ground had been laid
by the traditional folk uses of hemp.
ANTZYFEROV, L.V. ~ Hashish in Central Asia. Journal of
Socialist Health Care in Uzbekistan, 1934. Tashkent
BENET, SULA (BENETOWA) ~ Le chanvre dans les croyances
Et les coutumes populaires. Comtes Rendus de Seances de la
Societe des Sciences et des Lettres de Varsovie XXVII,
BIEGELEISEN, H. ~ Lecznictwo ludu Polskiego [Polish folk
medicine]. Cracow, 1929.
BREITSCHNEIDER ~ Gotanicon sinicum. Journal of Northern
China, Branch of the Royal Asia Society I: 569, 1881.
DE CANDOLLE, ALPHONSE LOUIS P.P. ~ Origine des plantes
cultivees. Paris: G. Bailliere, 1883.
DEWEY, L.H. ~ Hemp. Yearbook of the Department of
Agriculture. 289, 1913.
DIOSCORIDES, ANAZARBEUS PEDACIUS ~ Arzneimittellehre
[Pharmacology]. Translated by J. Berendes. Vol. III.
Stuttgart: F. Enke, 1902.
DRAGENDORFF, GEORG ~ Die Heilpflanzen der verschiedenen
Volker und Zeiten [The medical plants of various peoples and
times]. Stuttgart: F. Enke, 1898.
DURANT, W. ~ Our oriental heritage. Vol. I. New York:
Simon and Schuster, 1954.
EMBODEN , WILLIAM A. ~ "Ritual use of Cannabis sativa L,"
in Flesh of the Gods: the ritual use of hallucinogens.
Edited by Peter T. Furst. New York: Praeger Publishers.
pg. 223, 1972.
HAGER, K ~ Flachs und Hanfund ihre verarbeitung im
Bundner Oberland. Yahrbuch des Schweizer Alpenclub
pg. 147, 1919.
HOFLER n.d. Altgermanische Heilkunde [Old-Germanic
medicine]. Neubuerger-Pogel's Handbuch I: 466.
KLEIN, SIEGFRIED ~ Tod und Begrabnis in Palistina.
Berlin: H. Itzkowski, 1908.
KOLBERG, O. ~ Mazowsze Lud. Towarzystwo Ludoznawcze
V: pg. 206, 1899.
MEISSNER, B. ~ Babylonien und Assyrian. II: 84.
Heidelberg: von W. Foy, 1925.
MINNS, ELLIS H. ~ Scythians and Greeks. Vol. I.
New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1965.
MOLDENKE, H., A. Moldenke ~ Plants of the Bible.
Waltham, Massachusetts: Cronica Botanica Co, 1952.
PATAI, R. ~ Hebrew installation rites.
Hebrew Union College Annual XX, 1947.
ROSTOVTZEFF, M. ~ Caravan cities. London: Oxford, 1932.
SALZBERGER, G. ~ Salomons Tempelbau und Thron
[The building of Solomon's temple and throne].
Berlin: Mayer and Muller, 1912.
SYRENIUS, SZ. ~ "Zielnik [Medicinal plants]," in
Typographia Basilii Skalski. Krakow: [in Polish],
TSCHIRCH, A. ~ Handbuch der Pharmakognosie
[Pharmaceutical handbook]. II.
Leipzig: Verlag von chr. Herm. Tauchnitz, 1912.
VAVILOV, N. ~ Tzentry proiskhozhdenia kulturnksh rastenii
[Centers of origin of domesticated plants]. Trudy no Prile
Bot. I. Sel. XVI: 109 [in Russian], 1926.
WISSMAN, H., et al. ~ Im innern Afrikas [In Inner
Africa]. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus, 1888.
See also the Encyclopaedia Britannica of 1856 entry on cannabis:
In China it is known as ma;
in Sanskrit it is known as goni, sanu or shanapu;
Arabic, kannah or kinnub;
French, chanvre or chanbre;
Danish kamp or kennep;
Lettish and Lithuanian, kannapes;
and English hemp.
Other terms for hemp include
Polish, konopi and penek and
Aitken. D., & Mikuriya, T.H. ~ The Forgotten Medicine, in
The Ecologist, (1980), Vol.10, Nos. 8/9.
Benet, Sula (as Sara Benetowa) ~ Tracing One Word Through
Different Languages [ Konopie w Wierzeniach i Zwyczajach
Ludowych, Prace etnolog. Inst. nauk antropol. i. etnolog.
Towarz. 2 ], 1936; reprinted in The Book of Grass, 1967.)
Malyon, T., & Henman, A. ~ No Marijuana: Plenty of Hemp,
in *New Scientist* , 13/11/1980.
La Barre, Weston ~ Culture in Context; Selected Writings
of Weston La Barre, Duke University Press, 1980.